Aquat. Living Resour.
Volume 24, Number 3, July-September 2011
|Page(s)||247 - 260|
|Published online||29 June 2011|
Physiological and biochemical changes associated with massive mortality events occurring in larvae of American oyster (Crassostrea virginica)
Institut des sciences de la mer, Université du Québec à Rimouski, 310 allée des Ursulines, Rimouski, Québec G5L 3A1, Canada
2 Institut de recherche sur les zones côtières, 232b rue de l’Eglise, Shippagan, Nouveau-Brunswick E8S 2L7, Canada
3 Ifremer, Laboratoire Environnement Ressources du Languedoc Roussillon, bd Jean Monnet, 34203 Sète, France
4 Ifremer, UMR M100 Physiologie et Ecophysiologie des Mollusques marins, 29280 Plouzané, France
5 Institut Universitaire Européen de la Mer, Laboratoire des Sciences de l’Environnement marin, Université de Bretagne occidentale, 29280 Plouzané, France
a Corresponding auteur: email@example.com
Received: 15 September 2010
Accepted: 21 April 2011
In this paper, biochemical and physiological analyses were used to characterize changes associated with mortality event occurred during veliger development of American oyster, Crassostrea virginica. Biochemical analyses included the evaluation of lipid classes, fatty acid composition and total protein content. Larval physiology was evaluated by studying feeding activity, enzymes related to energy metabolism, oxidative stress levels and enzymatic antioxidant defenses. These analyses were complemented by bacterial community analyses as well as by measuring larval oyster performance. We observed that mortality events coincided with (1) strong changes in the surrounding bacterial community; (2) a progressive decrease in feeding activity; (3) higher levels of some lipid classes (free fatty acids, diglycerides, and acetone mobile phospholipids); (4) lower levels of phospholipids and protein; (5) higher contents of non-methylene interrupted dienoic fatty acids (22:2 NMI); (6) a decrease in energy metabolism activity (citrate synthase and cytochrome oxidase activities); (7) a higher oxidative stress (lipid peroxidation level); and (8) an activation of antioxidant defences before mortality (glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase). We hypothesized that mortality emergence was related to higher energy consumption coupled with the progressive decline in feeding activity, lowered energy reserves and a decrease in energy metabolism activity. Thus, the low energy availability limited the efficiency of antioxidant defenses, resulting in a higher oxidative stress.
Key words: Massive mortality / Larvae / Microbial environment / Lipid / Fatty acids / Energy metabolism / Oxidative stress / Antioxidant enzymes / Crassostrea virginica
© EDP Sciences, IFREMER, IRD 2011
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