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Table 2

Characterization of the changes brought about by the three innovations through the three principles of ecological intensification selected at a territorial scale by (Aubin et al., 2017).

Innovation 1: The production of ‘large’ tilapia in ponds with little or no feed Innovation 2: tilapia and Heterotis polyculture Innovation 3: Flooded rice
1 – Promoting the recognition of services and leveraging skills and know-how This fish is appreciated in the villages. It moreover creates additional wealth in giving the opportunity to women processors to transform it into current dishes while other women specialize in its commercialization towards the peripheral cities. Those facts are a source of pride.
As the density of producer hubs increases, the performance of services is improved: production of seines and fry, and the exchange of knowledge.
Cooperation is encouraged by development structures based on information and the organization of services.
Heterotis is the show fish in the fish farming system due to its large size (up to 3.5 kg in ponds) and due to its jumps. This validates the know-how acquired by the farmers.
The purchase and exchange of Heterotis fry imparts vitality into professional networks. New knowledge and insights are passed on, questions are shared such as ‘the sex of Heterotis’.
Knowledge generated by the research community is disseminated.
Local varieties of long-cycle flooded rice were shared spontaneously within networks in which knowledge and know-how about rice cultivation are valued.
Within the local networks, know-how is fine-tuned: selection of varieties according to the water column or management of fish stocking depending on the filling level.
The fish farmers use seasonality for rice cultivation in order to spread out the bird risk.
2 – Improving the territorial integration of aquaculture systems by promoting the production of non-commercial ecosystem services This productive system is recognized as being part of territorial agricultural culture. Ponds are considered as water reserves and as an asset against bush fires.
This system restores perennial wetlands.
Heterotis has become one of the symbols of this fish farming system at the local level.
Heterotis has become an integral part of the agricultural and culinary culture of these territories.
Rice cultivation contributes to the pond’s maintenance and of its services. The variety of rice to cultivate depending on the water column is being examined by the research community.
Producer organizations in Guinea claim to be ‘rice-fish farmers’.
The authorities in Guinea showcase this production for food self-sufficiency.
3 – Adapting territorial governance mechanisms and instruments, and involving stakeholders The recognition of this activity by local authorities facilitates land transactions peripheral to the development of the ponds and the recognition of the private ownership of the fish produced.
Development organizations involve the research community (national agricultural research services and universities and international scientific institution).
Heterotis is easy to farm and contributes to fish farming’s legitimacy and recognition. Rice-fish farming is seen as a marker of development in the forest area of Guinea.
Development agencies facilitate the participation of stakeholders, especially fish farmers, in the development and validation of the innovation.

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