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Table 1

Recommendations as listed in the Berlin Oyster Recommendation on the Future of Native Oyster Restoration in Europe. These are based on agreements of participants of the first meeting of the Native Oyster Restoration Alliance (NORA) in Berlin 2017, NORA members and on a literature review focusing on restoration of Ostrea edulis.

Recommendation Actions Scientific reference
1. Produce sufficient oysters for restoration of oyster reefs Support existing hatcheries (Vercaemer et al., 2004; Pogoda, 2019; Colsoul et al., 2019)
Support spatting ponds (Culloty et al., 2004; Ashton and Brown, 2009; Syvret and Woolmer, 2015; Colsoul et al., 2019)
Support spat collector techniques (Kamermans et al., 2004; Bataller et al., 2006; Lok and Acarli, 2006; Burke et al., 2008; van den Brink, 2012; Rodriguez-Perez et al., 2019; Colsoul et al., 2019)
Establish broodstock sanctuaries (Brumbaugh et al., 2006; Colsoul et al., 2019)
2. Identify and create suitable sites for restoration of oyster reefs / Site selection Reintroduction sites (Clewell et al., 2000; Laing, 2005; Laing et al., 2005; Ashton and Brown, 2009; Shelmerdine and Leslie, 2009; Woolmer et al., 2011; Keenelyside et al., 2012; Gravestock et al., 2014; Fariñas-Franco et al., 2018; Pogoda, 2019)
Reinforcement sites (Kennedy and Roberts, 1999; Laing, 2005; Laing et al., 2005; Roberts et al., 2005; Kennedy and Roberts, 2006; Woolmer et al., 2011; Gravestock et al., 2014; Helmer et al., 2019)
Conservation sites (University Marine Biological Station Millport, 2007)
3. Provide suitable substrate for successful recruitment Extraction of shells from the marine environment for other usages should be stopped (Laing, 2005; Laing et al., 2005; Airoldi and Beck, 2007)
Addition of suitable substrate to ease recruitment of larvae (University Marine Biological Station Millport, 2007)
Artificial Reefs: (Baine, 2001; Brumbaugh et al., 2006; Ashton and Brown, 2009)
4. Respect Bonamia-free areas Research should be encouraged to better understand the Bonamia parasite and infections (Culloty and Mulcahy, 2001; Culloty and Mulcahy, 2007; Carrasco et al., 2012)
Biosecurity protocols must be strictly followed (Laing, 2005; Laing et al., 2005; Cranford et al., 2012; Brenner et al., 2014; Syvret and Woolmer, 2015)
Take advantage of any disease tolerance that has developed in broodstock (Naciri-Graven et al., 1998; Culloty et al., 2001, 2004; Culloty and Mulcahy, 2001)
5. Create common monitoring protocols Develop and follow monitoring protocols (Laing, 2005; Laing et al., 2005Brumbaugh et al., 2006)
Include the assessment of ecosystem services on a habitat and ecosystem scale (Leewis et al., 1997; Brumbaugh et al., 2006; Coen et al., 2007; Grabowski and Peterson, 2007; Ashton and Brown, 2009; Gercken and Schmidt, 2014; Christianen et al., 2018)
6. Preserve genetic diversity Preserve the extant genetic diversity of native oysters in Europe (Saavedra, 1997; Vercaemer et al., 2003; Laing, 2005; Laing et al., 2005; Sobolewska and Beaumont, 2005; University Marine Biological Station Millport, 2007; Ashton and Brown, 2009; Lallias et al., 2010)

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