Open Access

Table 1

Environmental requirements and tolerance ranges of C. zillii in its native range (some extreme conditions are reported only from experimental studies).

chemical parameter
Tolerance range Optimum range Adverse effect in extreme conditions References\
Temperature 6.5–42.5 °C 25–30 °C In low temperatures (below 11 °C), feeding stops, vulnerability to disease increases, mortality occurs
Minimum temperature for reproduction is 20 °C
Philippart and Ruwet (1982);
Gophen, (2016)
pH 6–9 Froese and Pauly (2022)
Salinity 0.16–45 ppt Established in the Red Sea, and Lake Qarun of Egypt (salinity 36–45 ppt), but the fish is considered a freshwater fish since almost all of its native distributions are in freshwater, and no reproduction occurs in seawater Philippart and Ruwet (1982);
El-Sayed (2006)
Dissolved oxygen 0.1–40 mg. L−1 Most tilapias are known to tolerate very low DO level (as low as 0.1–0.5 mg. L−1) as well as high level of CO2 for varying period of time Chervinski and Hering (1973); Philippart and Ruwet (1982); El-Sayed (2006)
Turbidity Generally, tilapias are tolerant to high turbidity and resistant to water pollution by toxic substances El-Sayed (2006)

Current usage metrics show cumulative count of Article Views (full-text article views including HTML views, PDF and ePub downloads, according to the available data) and Abstracts Views on Vision4Press platform.

Data correspond to usage on the plateform after 2015. The current usage metrics is available 48-96 hours after online publication and is updated daily on week days.

Initial download of the metrics may take a while.