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Fig. 3


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Relationships between host condition and parasite prevalence (left) or abundance (right), for all individuals (A), males only (B) and females only (C). Effect sizes are represented, with symbols depicting results of the corresponding F tests (∼ < 0.1, * < 0.05, ** < 0.01). Effect sizes for the impact of parasites' presence are regression coefficients of the Linear Model (LM) linking parasite presence (binary factor) with centered-scaled condition parameters. Effect sizes for the impact of parasites' abundance are standardized regression coefficients, i.e., regression coefficients of the LM linking centered-scaled parasite abundance with centered-scaled condition parameters.

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