Aquat. Living Resour.
Volume 11, Number 4, July 1998Nutritional Strategies and Management of Aquaculture Waste
|199 - 210
|15 July 1998
Development of bioenergetic models and the Fish-PrFEQ software to estimate production, feeding ration and waste output in aquaculture
Fish Nutrition Research Laboratory, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1, Canada
2 Fish Nutrition Research Laboratory, Dept Animal and Poultry Science, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1, Canada
Accepted: 21 July 1998
Feeding guides for salmonid fishes have been available from various sources for many years. These feeding guides have originated in one way or another from earlier feeding charts of the 1950-60s when meal-meat mixture diets were widely used. Few of the feeding guides available today are based on actual bioenergetics data at different water temperatures and are adapted to high energy diets. New feeding standards have been developed based on principles of nutritional energetics in which the digestible energy content of diet, digestible protein and energy ratio and the amount of digestible energy required per unit of live weight gain are taken into account. The gain expressed as retained energy in carcass and maintenance energy at different water temperatures is the main criteria for energy and feed allocations. Series of bioenergetic models were developed based on these principles and a stand-alone multimedia program was written to facilitate computation of the models. This program predicts growth and energy, nitrogen and phosphorus retention, requirements and excretions to determine feeding standards, waste outputs and effluent water quality based on a biological method. The models require initial and final body weights, water temperature, growth coefficient, carcass energy content and waste coefficients to estimate input and output. Accurate determinations of the thermal-unit growth coefficient, apparent digestibility coefficients and retention efficiencies are essential and these coefficients are determined by biological experiments in the laboratory and field. Oxygen requirement is included to aid environmental control in fish culture system. The Fish-PrFEQ program also contains modules for production records, performance calculations and data base management for input and output data which may be exported for further data and graphic manipulations.
Key words: Bioenergetics / growth model / feeding / solid waste / phosphorus / nitrogen / oxygen / salmonid aquaculture
© Elsevier, IRD, Inra, Ifremer, Cemagref, CNRS, 1998
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