Open Access

Table 1

Beneficial effect of lactic acid bacteria probiotics on aquatic host in aquaculture.

Probiotic species Aquatic host species Effect Sources
Bacterial diseases, immunity, growth, etc.
Lactobacillus sp. Sparus aurata
Danio rerio
Produce amylase, trypsin, lipase, alkaline phosphatase and leucine leucinealanine peptidase to improve the feed utilization
Provide protection against Aeromonas hydrophila infection
Suzer et al., 2008
He et al., 2017
Lactobacillus delbrueckii Dicentrarchus labrax L.
Cyprinus carpio
Enhancing immunity, growth improvement
Enhancing immunity, disease resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila, antioxidant capability and growth performance
Carnevali et al., 2006, Picchietti et al., 2009
Zhang et al., 2017
Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus Oncorhynchus mykiss
Oreochromis niloticus
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Portunus pelagicus (Linnaeus, 1758)
Pagrus major
Enhance immunity, reduce disease susceptibility and mortality affected by Aeromonas salmonocida
Enhance immunity, reduce disease susceptibility and mortality affected by Edwardsiella tarda
Improve blood quality
Reduce pathogen load in culture tank, improves survival rate and water quality, produce enzymes − protease and amylase
Protect from low salinity stress
Nikoskelainen et al., 2003
Pirarat et al., 2006
Panigrahi et al., 2010
Talpur et al., 2013
Dawood et al., 2017c
Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus and Lactococcus lactis Pagrus major
Produce protease to improve feed utilization; promote vitality, weight gain; improve protein and feed assimilation
Improving intestinal morphology, enhancing immune status and disease resistance, and affect the gut microbiota of tilapia
Dawood et al., 2016a
Xia et al., 2018
Levilactobacillus brevis Juvenile hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus/ Oreochromis aureus) Protect against the toxic effects of Aeromonas hydrophila Liu et al., 2013
Lactiplantiobacillus plantarum Oncorhynchus mykiss
Paralichthys olivaceus
Epinephelus coioides
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Labeo rohita
Seriola dumerili
Oreochromis niloticus
Cyprinus carpio
Oreochromis niloticus
Reduce mortality affected by Lactococcus garvieae
Produce protease to improve the feed utilization
Improving the growth, immunity, and disease resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila
Immunostimulation: significantly up-regulated the
expression of cytokine genes, IL-4, IL-12 and IFN-γ
Improving the growth, immunity, and disease resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila
Improve the growth variables and immunophysiological responses, increase resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila
Increased survival, remarkably improved the growth performance, specific growth rate, weight gain, final weight, and feed conversion ratio
Promoting growth and enhancing innate immune responses and resistance against Streptococcus sp. and an iridovirus
Enhance stress tolerance
Vendrell et al., 2008
Taoka et al., 2008
Son et al., 2009
Ṕerez-Śanchez et al., 2011
Giri et al., 2013
Dawood et al., 2015a
Hamdan et al., 2016
Soltani et al., 2017
Doan et al., 2018
Lactiplantibacillus plantarum subsp. plantarum and Limosilactobacillus reuteri Cyprinus carpio Enhance the growth performance, mucosal immune responses, and disease resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila Giri et al., 2021
Lactiplantibacillus plantarum and Fructilactobacillus fructivorans Sparus auratus Increased immunity and protective mechanism under stress conditions, significantly lower cumulative mortality Liu et al., 2013
Lactiplantibacillus pentosus Anguilla japonica Improve immune system and reduce mortality affected by Edwardsiella tarda Lee et al., 2013
Lactobacillus acidophilus Clarias gariepinus
Carassius auratus
Carassius auratus
Channa striata
Channa striata
Improve water quality, enhance fish health, survival and better feed efficiency and growth performance
Biocontrol agent against fish pathogenic bacteria Staphylococcus xylosus, Aeromonas hydrophila and Streptococcus agalactiae
Influence on the expression of genes related to immunity, appetite, and on the protein profile of skin mucus.
Improve growth and expression of immunoregulatory genes
Produces antimicrobial peptide for treatment of Aeromonas hydrophila infections
Al-Dohail et al., 2009
Al-Dohail et al., 2011
Hosseini et al., 2016
Munir et al., 2016
Akter et al., 2020
Ligilactobacillus murinus Produces Bacteriocin, which inhibits of Micrococcus sp., Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli Elayaraja et al., 2014
Latilactobacillus sakei Oplegnathus fasciatus Improve immune system and reduce mortality affected by Edwardsiella tarda Harikrishnan et al., 2011
Lacticaseibacillus casei Barbus grypus Produce lipase, amylase, alkaline phosphatase for enhanced feed conversion Vand et al., 2014
Lacticaseibacillus paracasei Takifugu rubripes Provide protection against Vibrio harveyi infection Biswas et al., 2013a
Limosilactobacillus reuteri Cyprinus carpio Effectively decreased mortality and accumulation of Pb in tissues, improved the growth performance. Alleviated Pb exposure-induced oxidative stress, reversed alterations in hemato-biochemical parameters, improved innate immune parameters, restored intestinal enzymatic activities, and reversed the changes in intestinal microbiota in Pb-exposed fish. Giri et al., 2018
Lactococcus lactis Paralichthys olivaceus
Cyprinus carpio
Oreochromis niloticus
Activate the innate immune system and protect against pathogen infections affected by Streptococcus iniae, Streptococcus parauberis and Enterococcus viikkiensis. Enhance feed conversion efficiency and weight gain effect
Enhancing the growth, immunity, and disease resistance to Vibrio harveyi infection
Enhancing the growth performance, innate immune response and disease resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila
Enhance gut-colonization success, regulate the immune response and larval disease resistance
Kim et al., 2013
Sun et al., 2018
Feng et al., 2019
Xia et al., 2019
Lc. lactis and Leuconostoc
Salmo trutta
Enhancing the immune response and protection against Aeromonas salmonicida
Improves survival rate, activates phagocytic cells in the head kidney, reduces the rate of proliferation of pathogens in the intestine during Aeromonas salmonicida infection
Balcázar et al., 2007
Balcázar et al., 2009
Lc. lactis and Lactiplantibacillus plantarum Paralichthys olivaceus Significantly improves innate immunity and weight gain,
improves survival rate against Streptococcus iniae infection
Beck et al., 2015
Lc. lactis,
Lb. plantarum and
L. mesenteroides
Oncorhynchus mykiss Enhancing the immune response and protection against Lactococcus garvieae. Ṕerez-Śanchez et al., 2020
Lactococcus garvieae Oreochromis niloticus Improves survival rate and inhibits Staphylococcus aureus Abdelfatah et al., 2018
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Enhancing the growth performance, innate immune response and disease resistance against Aeromonas salmonicida
Produces enterocin AS-48, which inhibits Lactococcus garvieae
and potential alternative for controlling diseases in aquaculture
Rodriguez-Estrada et al., 2013
Baños et al., 2019
Enterococcus faecium Anguilla Anguilla
Anguilla Anguilla
Mugil cephalus
Reduce disease susceptibility and mortality affected by Edwardsiella tarda
Enhances immunity and improves water quality
Produce enterocin MC13, which suppressed Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio harveyi and Aeromonas hydrophila
Chang et al., 2002
Wang et al., 2008
Satish Kumar et al., 2011
Dicentrarchus labrax Have moderate protective effect against Vibrio anguil­larum Sorroza et al., 2013
Enterococcus casseliflavus Oncorhynchus mykiss Activate the innate immune system and improve resistance against Streptococcus iniae infection Safari et al., 2016
Pediococcus acidilactici Oncorhynchus mykiss
Oncorhynchus mykiss
Litopenaeus stylirostris
Increase surface area for absorbtion by increasing villi length
Produce Pediocin PA-1
Increase antioxidant status
Merrifield et al., 2010b
Araújo et al., 2016
Castex et al., 2009
Pediococcus pentosaceus Epinephelus coioides
Litopenaeus vannamei
Ctenopharyngodon idella
Enhancing innate immunity, physiological health and resistance to Vibrio anguillarum
Produce enzymes (amylase, protease and lipase) to improve the feed utilization
Promote growth and enhance immune, significantly improves survival rate against Aeromonas hydrophila infection
Huang et al., 2014
Adel et al., 2017a
Gong et al., 2019
Fungal diseases
Lactiplantibacillus plantarum Pangasius hypophthalmus Inhibition of the growth of the parasitic Saprolegnia parasitica Nurhajati et al., 2012
Viral diseases
Lactobacillus sp. Paralychthys olivaceus Develop resistance against lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV) Harikrishnan et al., 2010
Lactiplantibacillus plantarum Epinephelus coioides Enhancing innate immune responses and resistance against iridovirus Son et al., 2009

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