Using single-beam side-lobe observations of fish echoes for fish target strength and abundance estimation in shallow water
Technical University of Gdansk, ul. Narutowicza 11/12, 80-952 Gdansk, Poland
2 BioSonics, Inc., 4027 Leary Way NW, Seattle, WA 98107, USA
Accepted: 22 September 2000
Acoustic surveys for determining fish abundance in shallow water present many challenges. One constraint to down-looking (or vertical) surveys is that the sampling volume is limited due to the short range and typically narrow beams of acoustic transducers. By utilizing more of the acoustic beam, into the side-lobes for example, the sampling volume may be increased. Although the echo energy contribution from the side-lobes is usually small, these echoes may influence target strength estimation and echo counting, and by extension affect abundance estimation either directly or indirectly. With the advent of wide dynamic range echosounders, it is possible to assess both small and large acoustic-size targets. In this case, it is possible to collect signals from large targets in the beam side-lobes, and therefore an algorithm to use side-lobe data is proposed. The smoothed Expectation Maximization method (EMS) is used to estimate densities and target strength of fish from only main-lobe and main-lobe with side-lobe observations in simulation, and suggestions are made for real data from surveys.
Key words: fisheries acoustics / indirect estimation / target strength / fish echoes / abundance estimation / maximization and smoothing
© Elsevier, Inra, Ifremer, Cemagref, Ird, Cnrs, 2000